By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker
▓ Book's significant other Website
▓ Abstraction is a primary mechanism underlying either human and synthetic notion, illustration of data, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a very important position in lots of disciplines, significantly laptop Programming, normal and synthetic imaginative and prescient, complicated structures, synthetic Intelligence and laptop studying, artwork, and Cognitive Sciences. This booklet first presents the reader with an summary of the notions of abstraction proposed in quite a few disciplines by way of evaluating either commonalities and variations. After discussing the characterizing houses of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to seize them. This version makes the concept of abstraction simply appropriate by way of the creation of a suite of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout assorted domain names and purposes. it's the impression of abstraction in man made Intelligence, advanced platforms and computer studying which creates the middle of the ebook. A common framework, in accordance with the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic energy is illustrated with 3 case experiences: Model-based prognosis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
∙ Collects, describes and compares quite a few ways to abstraction proposed within the literature of assorted fields
∙ Discusses why abstraction performs a key function in AI artifacts, utilizing concrete examples, comparable to cartographic generalization and human/robot interaction
∙ presents a conceptualization framework to layout powerful systems
▒ Book's Preface
When we begun scripting this publication we have been conscious of the complexity of the task,
but we didn't think that it's going to take us nearly 3 years to accomplish it.
Furthermore, through the research and comparability of the literature from different
fields, it truly emerged that very important effects were completed, yet that much
more vital ones are nonetheless out of succeed in. Then, the spirit of the booklet replaced, by
itself, from the meant evaluate of the earlier to a stimulus for the long run. We
would feel free if the reader, rather than being content material with the tips we propose,
would take them as a motivation and start line to head past them.
We current a wide collection of works on abstraction in different disciplines;
nonetheless many correct contributions to the sector were inevitably left out,
owing to the sheer quantity of pages they'd fill. We express regret for the missing
In this ebook we current a version of abstraction, the KRA version, yet this is often not
the middle of the e-book. It has a constrained scope and serves major reasons: on the
one hand it exhibits that a number of prior proposals of abstraction theories have a
common root and will be dealt with inside of a unified framework, and, at the different, it
offers a computational atmosphere for acting abstraction by way of making use of a collection of
available, domain-independent operators (programs). in reality, there's nonetheless a gap
between basic abstraction theories, often based logical formulations of representation
changes, and urban techniques that seriously depend on particular domain
characteristics. The KRA version is intended to be anything in among: the
domain-independence of the abstraction operators achieves either generality (it can
cover a wide spectrum of purposes and alertness domains), and synergy (by
instantiating in numerous contexts a few code written only one time).
Independently of the version, we think that the fundamental rules on which it relies
are extra vital than the version itself. those principles are definitely debatable; some
reader may possibly imagine that our view of abstraction is precisely what he/she has always
looked for, while another may perhaps imagine that abstraction is completely something
else. either reactions are welcome: what issues is to set off curiosity within the subject
and stimulate extra research.
The booklet isn't meant to be a textbook: it's certain to scientists operating on
or utilizing abstraction strategies, with no hassle of fields. laptop scientists,
Artificial Intelligence researchers, artists, cognitive scientists, mathematicians, and curious minds can learn the e-book. a few components are extra formalized, they usually may
look advanced first and foremost sight. in spite of the fact that, we think that the best a part of the
content is graspable through intuition.
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Extra resources for Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems
As an example, a cell endowed with orientation selectivity responds to a visual stimulus along a given direction, for instance the vertical one. Then, the cell will respond to any object vertically oriented, disregarding what the object actually is. The cell has abstracted the property of verticality, without being concerned with the particulars. The ability to abstract is not limited to the cells in the visual system, but extends to all sensory areas of the brain, as well as to higher cognitive properties and judgmental levels.
8 French philosopher, who lived in the late XII century in Paris. He also has been a teacher of Peter Abelard, who, later, convinced him to change his opinion about universals. 20 2 Abstraction in Different Disciplines An approach relevant to both abstraction and language, even though not explicitly stated so, is described by G¨ardenfors . He discusses the representations needed for language to evolve, and he identifies two main types: cued and detached. A cued representation “stands for something that is present in the current external situation of the representing organism”.
On the other hand, Frege himself appeared to change his position ten years later, by asserting that the process of abstraction can indeed change the objects, or even create new ones. ” A good illustrative example of this abstraction process is geometry, which started from the observation and measurement of physical spaces and forms, moving then to the abstract axioms of the Euclidean geometry, and, later on, to non-Euclidean geometries, farther and farther removed from the perceived physical world.