By S. Alexander Weinstock
The plans for this learn have been formulated among 1956 and 1958. For a while then, I have been attracted to the methods of private and social lodging and within the elements that have been liable for resistance to alter. whereas a graduate pupil at Columbia collage at the moment, i used to be additionally affiliated with a multidisciplinary learn staff at Cornell college scientific schools learning the reactions of individuals of varied cultural and social backgrounds to events of tension. The Hungarian refugees have been one of many teams being studied. I hence determined to adopt a research of the method of acculturation, the Hungarian refugees supplying a terrific inhabitants. i didn't anticipate to come across any critical problems. keep in mind that, the paintings used to be beset with each type of hassle, monetary, conceptual, etc., that sometimes accompanies study tasks. it's only now, greater than a decade later, that i'm in a position to current my findings of their ultimate shape. i'm happy to have this chance to specific my in debtedness to the various those who made thIS learn attainable. i've been lucky in having lecturers, colleagues, and associates, an identical individual, who helped me within the formula usually all in of the matter, provided encouragement alongside each step, and taught me the very talents i used to be to use.
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Additional info for Acculturation and Occupation: A Study of the 1956 Hungarian Refugees in the United States
Bridges were rebuilt. Houses were made habitable. Shops and factories were reopened by their former owners. Free enterprise flourished. One of the first acts of the coalition government was to complete a program of land reform. The peasants felt that at last they had a place in Hungarian society. The major Nazi collaborators were punished; some were hanged, others jailed after public trials. On the surface at least, Hungary seemed to have the most democratic regime in its history. Even objective foreign observers were impressed with the rapid rate of economic recovery in Hungary.
The government responded by subjecting violators of work-discipline to punishment. Frequent offenders were sent to work camps. As a result of the various disciplinary measures imposed on them by the Communists, the workers began to HUNGARY: I9I4-I956 overlook the improvements the Communists had brought about: better public services, paid vacations at special resort areas for workers, increased educational facilities, and maternity benefits. White-collar workers in administrative or managerial positions were subject to working conditions that were as unpleasant as those of the other w:orkers.
In some cases, kulaks were imprisoned on various pretexts; in others, they were simply driven off the land. The first peasant cooperatives were formed at this time, and the kulaks were forbidden to join. The immediate result of all these measures was a tremendous drop in agricultural production. Nevertheless, the drive toward collectivization continued. The Communists forced the peasants to join the cooperatives by making private farming as uncomfortable as possible for them. , forced exchanges of property with cooperatives when the cooperatives wanted to unify their holdings.