By S. Galant, A. Vaféas, T. Pagano, E. Peirano (auth.), Gianluigi Migliavacca (eds.)
The re-engineering of strength transmission structures is important to assembly the targets of such regulators because the eu Union. as well as its marketplace, organisational and regulatory features, this re-engineering also will contain technical concerns facing the revolutionary integration of leading edge transmission applied sciences within the day-by-day operation of transmission approach operators. during this context, complicated applied sciences for destiny Transmission Grids offers an summary of the main promising applied sciences, prone to be of support to planners of transmission grids in responding to the demanding situations of the long run: defense of provide; integration of renewable iteration; and construction of built-in strength markets (using the eu case as an example). those concerns have elevated significance due to administrative problem and the fragmentation of public opinion expressed at the building up of recent infrastructure. for every expertise mentioned, the point of interest is at the technical-economic standpoint instead of on in simple terms technological issues of view. A transmission-system-operator-targeted know-how Roadmap is gifted for the combination of promising leading edge energy transmission applied sciences inside strength structures of the mid-long time period. even though the first concentration of this article is within the sphere of the ecu strength marketplace, the teachings discovered could be generalized to the power markets of different regions.
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Extra resources for Advanced Technologies for Future Transmission Grids
In terms of visual impact and electromagnetic field level). Some common RD&D (research, development and demonstration) challenges could be mutualised by TSOs at EU level, such as the eco-design of towers. Demonstration of new interfaces between lines and towers is needed. The cost differential is expected to be compensated, inter alia, by the advantages in terms of maintenance, since such structures are less prone to structural damages. 12 summarises the key milestones of the technology integration road map for passive equipment, extracted from the numerous milestones described in the detailed actions agendas for each technology.
The insulated conductors of the three-core impregnated paper are drawn into a steel pipe which is subsequently filled with oil and maintained under high pressure. Another type of similar cable is the high pressure gas filled where the insulating oil is replaced with insulating gas. Such cables have been positively operated for long time by some big utilities with certain benefits, but they have not found a general worldwide consensus due to the high maintenance cost and the risk of leakage of great amount of fluid.
During the 1990s, the adoption of extruded extra high voltage (EHV) cables up to 550 kV found application in some very important circuits in many developed countries. These major circuits are well described in the technical literature (see Ref. ). The CIGRE Technical Brochure 338 (Ref. ) provides historical statistics on underground cables in power transmission systems and shows that the percentage of underground transmission is strongly variable among countries and decreasing at the higher voltages.