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By John D Grainger

Alexander's loss of life was once no longer unpredictable: he suffered repeated wounds in the course of his lifetime, and multiple introduced him close to dying; he drank an excessive amount of; he built a fever, in which he endured to drink an excessive amount of; he believed he was once a god; he passed over his doctor's assistance; he used to be confronted with large difficulties which he deliberate to sidestep by means of happening crusade ... As a last act of irresponsibility, whilst requested to whom Read more...

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The peace agreement did not make any serious attempt to sort out the various quarrels between the cities, but it did include a clause by which each city should keep what it had. 1 Sparta refused to be involved; but then Sparta had been the main loser in the war, having been deprived of its ancient conquests in Arkadia and Messenia, and of its hegemony over the rest of Greece. The condition of Greece at the peace was thus one in which the old powers were diminished, but in which new powers had not yet emerged.

It was at enmity with both Macedon and Athens, though Athens’ preoccupation with the break-up of its league relieved the pressure. 25 Then he helped the league to capture Potidaia, a lapsed member which was also an Athenian ally. Potidaia had been reinforced by a band of Athenian cleruchs (settlers), and the siege of the city, in which Philip deployed an effective siege train, took up much of 356. It was conducted jointly with the Chalkidians. During the siege Philip received an appeal for help from Krenides, a mining THE SECURITY OF MACED ON, 359–354 bc 31 town about 50 km east of Amphipolis which was threatened by the Thracian king Kersobleptes.

He missed the killings in Macedon of his brother Alexander and of Ptolemy of Aloros, returning home when his other brother Perdikkas emerged as king in his own right in 365. 4 24 A L E X A N D E R T H E G R E AT F A I L U R E His conduct in his first year as king suggests that he had given thought to what was required. In what he accomplished in his first years, Philip was clearly helped by two important factors: the crisis in Macedon was so bad that he had a free hand in dealing with it; and the Greek powers ignored what was going on in Macedon, reasonably assuming that the continuing political collapse of the kingdom was yet another example of its fragility and instability.

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