Download An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control by Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN PDF

By Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN (eds.)

Biological regulate is without doubt one of the such a lot promising equipment for regulate of pests (including vectors), ailments and weeds. during this ebook ecological and societal features are for the 1st time handled jointly. In an ecological technique the purpose is to guage the importance of sure organic homes like biodiversity and usual habitats. additionally, it is very important see organic regulate from an natural (or ecological) farming standpoint. In a societal process phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are recognized as major for organic construction and human welfare.

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Therefore, the main challenge in organic production is to optimize the management system, including (but not restricted to) all measures by which the crops or animals become more healthy, or the living conditions for pests and diseases become less favourable. This approach called ‘indirect crop protection’ or ‘preventive animal-health management’ is typical for organic farming. Only when this approach is insufficient, may the organic farmer resort to ‘direct crop protection’ such as spraying of allowed insecticides or fungicides (including biocontrol agents) or to veterinary treatments such as the use of anthelmintics.

Although the IBS include lists of allowed inputs, their focus is on general principles and on criteria for evaluation of novel inputs. 2. Codex Alimentarius guidelines The Codex Alimentarius is a joint food standards programme of FAO/WHO (United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization). The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally adopted food standards. Their purpose is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in food trade (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 1999/2001).

Environmental Impact of Microbial Insecticides: Need and Methods for Risk Assessment. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands. A. W. 1999. Biological control in subtropical and tropical crops. In: Bellows, T. S. and Fischer, T. W. (eds), Handbook of Biological Control. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, 713-742. Kurppa, S. 1990. Inset pest damage, predicting and control in Finnish cereal cultivation during the 1980s. PhDdissertation, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, Finland, ISBN 951-729-37-6, 1-53.

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