# Download An Elementary Treatise on Differential Equations and Their by H. T. H. Piaggio PDF

By H. T. H. Piaggio

A arithmetic textbook on differential equations.

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**Sample text**

Pa:. methods of finding the Particular Integral when are a development of the idea of treating the operator as if it were an ordinary algebraic quan35. Symbolical f(x) ^e 8-*. The following methods D DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 34 We shall proceed tentatively, at tions that seem plausible, tity. in this manner, verifying the notation -p ( first and then, when a it by performing any operabeen obtained result has We direct differentiation. shall use ^ f(x) to denote a particular integral of the equation F(D)y-f(x).

H. is called the Complementary Function. D . (7). ~ /fr . (7) This gives /ov containing n arbitrary con- stants, the general solution of (6) is and F(x) f +p n u =/(x), DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 30 Thus a linear differential equation with of a Particular Integral and the Com- the general solution of constant coefficients is the sum plementary Function, the latter being the solution of the equation obtained by substituting zero for the function of x occurring. Examples for solution. /- -10 sin 3x.

M). e. e. tan (6 - \js) = k, a constant. The characteristics are therefore equiangular spirals, of which the singular point (the origin) is the focus. FIG. 5. These three simple examples illustrate three typical cases. * See Wada's paper. ] (2) B sin x). (3) y e x (A cos (4) y c cosh -, (the catenary). c Find the (5) All differential x+ equation of parabolas whose axes are parallel to the axis of y. (6) All circles of radius a. (7) All circles that pass through the origin. (8) All circles (whatever their radii or positions in the plane xOy).