By Marcel Pelgrom
This textbook is acceptable to be used in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, in addition to for practising engineers wanting a state of the art reference on information converters. It discusses a number of analog-to-digital conversion rules, together with sampling, quantization, reference iteration, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This ebook provides an summary of the state-of-the-art during this box and specializes in problems with optimizing accuracy and pace, whereas lowering the facility level.
This new, 3rd variation emphasizes novel calibration recommendations, the explicit necessities of latest structures, the results of 22-nm expertise and the necessity for a extra statistical method of accuracy. Pedagogical improvements to this version contain extra, new workouts, solved examples to introduce all key, new options and warnings, feedback and tricks, from a practitioner's point of view, at any place applicable. enormous historical past info and sensible suggestions, from designing a PCB, to lay-out facets, to trade-offs on process point, supplement the dialogue of simple ideas, making this publication a worthwhile reference for the skilled engineer.
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Additional info for Analog-to-Digital Conversion
Th =2 , sin. 19 shows the time and frequency response of the zero-order hold function for various values of the hold time Th . x/=x” behavior. x/”. 24) xD0 The last term in Eq. Th =2 which represents a delay in the time domain. This delay Th =2 is introduced as the value of the signal that was first concentrated in the sample moment is now distributed over the entire hold period. The average value moves from the sampling moment (the edge of the clock pulse) to the middle of the hold period. A zero response occurs at frequencies equal to multiples of the inverse of the hold time.
What is the noise density of the source? What is the noise density after sampling? What is the rmsvalue of the noise signal after sampling? Solution. 1 mV/2 over the impedance. 1 mV/2 =120 MHz. After sampling all noise bands higher than fs =2 are folded back to the baseband. In this case the frequency range between DC and 5 MHz will contain 24 uncorrelated noise bands. 1 mV/2 =120 MHz. The total noise after sampling is found from integration of the noise density over the band of 5 MHz, yielding again an effective noise level of: 1 mVrms .
NTs / D ! 33) The time error is a function of the time itself. The amplitude error is proportional to the slope of the signal ! AO and the magnitude of the time error. nTs / dt Ã2 2 t D ! 34) Averaging this result over all values of nTs gives a jitter error power of: 2 A D ! 35) When the origin of the jitter is a flat spectrum as for thermal noise, this jitter noise will appear as a flat spectrum between 0 and fs =2 and repeats at every higher band. 6 Jitter 37 Thermal noise floor SNR 80 DR 60 Max signal 40 SNR=60 dB SNR levels off due to jitter 20 DR=83 dB 0 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 dB log (Vin) Fig.