By Adriel R. Bonilla
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Extra resources for Antibiotic resistance : causes and risk factors, mechanisms and alternatives
In another study, a total of 26 strains of Streptococcus cemoris and 12 strains of Streptococcus lactis were challenged with 18 antibiotics was performed by Orberg and Sandine in 1985. The authors found that all strains were resistant to trimethoprim and almost all strains were resistant to sulfathiazole, while resistance to other antibiotics were species-dependent. According to Tannock (1987), the conjugative plasmid pAM_1 can translocate from Lactococcus and Enterococcus into L. reuteri and back again.
2008). , 2003) of probiotic strains. The existing documentation are merely recommendations and reports regarding the safety issue of probiotics in foods that have been published by various regulatory bodies from different countries. , 2003). , the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and bloodstream). Traditionally, translocation can be detected by the culture of viable cells from mesenteric lymph nodes. However, a recent detection method using the polymerase chain reaction to detect bacterial DNA has been described (Quigley and Quera, 2006).
Recently, many researchers have speculated that the commensal bacteria may act as carriers of antibiotic resistance genes and transfer these genes to pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria (Mathur and Singh, 2005). Probiotics that have been long considered to be noninfective have been isolated from lesions in patients with bacterial endocarditis and systemic infections (Ishibashi and Shoji, 2001). Therefore, probiotics that possess transmissible antibiotic resistance genes and the ability to translocate need further assessment prior to their use in food supplements.